What Are The Types Of Immunity/Immunology?

Share with :
What Are The Types Of Immunity/Immunology?

Class 1: Innate Immunities (natural or unspecified) Immunity (also known as nonspecific or natural) refers to the body's ability to resist and transmits it biologically from generation to generation. This immunity is immune to any microorganism or external substance that the host experiences.

This includes general structures that are inherited in every vertebrate's inherent structure and function, and is the main defense line. There is no immune memory of the inborn, i.e. it happens similarly whenever a microorganism or other foreign material occurs.

Innate immunity styles can be classified into organisms, ethnic and personal immunity. Innate immunity.

(I) Species Immunity is that in which one species infection is not caused by one species. Human beings do not, as a luxury, have cow disease, chicken cholera, hog cholera, horse shoots viral, anaemia etc., whereas animals are unfavorably affected by a vast number of human illnesses such as enteric fever, scarlet fever, sypha-like syphilis, gonorrhoea, measles, etc. The resistance of species is considered a consequence of long-term developments between highly developed "macro" organisms and pathogenic microorganisms.

(ii) Racial immunity (racial resistance) has been described as showing significant differences in the resistance of various races (races) to certain infectious conditions. A well-known example is that the protozoan infection caused by tick fever in other species of bovine animals is immune to the breeding. Likewise, the infection is immune to malaria, although malaria affects other human races. Black Africans suffer from sickle cells, which is a genetic disease.

Image result for Immunity/Immunology

(iii) Human immunity Many people of the race experience less or less serious infections than others of the same race with the same race history and potential for exposure. Kids are more susceptible to diseases such as measles and chickenpox, for convenience, whereas older people are more prone to other diseases such as pneumonia.

Class 2. Immunity (also known as unusual or adaptive immunity): The immunity gained is an immunity produced in your host by an immune donor after exposure in the body to a suitable antigen or after transmission of antibodies or lymphocytes.

Acquired Immunity Characteristics: Acquired immunity is adaptable and capable of detecting foreign microorganisms and macromollecules, i.e. antigens and selectively eliminating them.

The immunity is extremely specific, as it works against a particular bacterial pathogen or foreign macromolecule and its immunity usually does not provide protection to another. This immunity has four specific characteristics that differentiate it from non-specific (innate) immunity. Even a single amino acid varies for convenience in the ability of the antigens to discriminate between antigen molecules.

(ii) Diversity In their identification molecules, the acquired immune system creates immense diversity. This means that billions of various structures on foreign antigens can be specifically identified.

(iii) Family Medicine states that once an antigen has been identified and reacted to by the process of the acquired immune system, it will respond more rapidly and actively to the antigen after subsequent exposure. This is because the immunological memory is formed that forms the foundation for long-term immunity in the host body.

(iv) "Self-" and "Nonself" discrimination Immune system almost always identifies and responds to nonself-antigen. This ability to detect nonsense self-antigens is crucial if the immune system is to function properly. This function often fails and an autoimmune disease occurs in the host.

There are 2 forms of active immunity: I active immunity naturally acquired and (ii) passive immunity acquired artificially.

Image result for Immunity/Immunology

(I) Naturally Active Immunity This immunity evolves following natural processes such as infection after antigen (e.g. bacterial pathogens) entering the body and the body's immune system is producing antibodies in response.

In some cases, as with PM, measles, chicken pox, yellow fever, etc., immunity is life-long. Nevertheless, in other situations it may be likely after only a few years or even less (e.g., diphtheria, tetanus) that the immunity is lost (e.g., flu, pneumonia).

(ii) Artificially immunity, The latter produces immune systems, known as the artificially acquired active immunity, when carefully selected antigen (e.g. vaccination, chemically modified toxins, and toxoids) are deliberately placed in an immunized body. It is synthetic because the antigens are deliberately or unwittingly added and because the immune system of the recipient synthesizes anticorps.

Vaccines typically have long-term immunity, according to Immunology Journal Today, Vaccines for many infectious diseases are now available, including cholera, tuberculosis, measles, pneumonia, rocky mountain-spotted fever, smallpox, polio, tetanus, influenza, roughage, yellow fever, etc. Toxoids for diphtheria and tetanus, two diseases that mostly have toxins, are currently available for protection.